Report On Stopping Unrest and Quelling Counter Revolutionary Riots (30 June 1989)
Originally Translated into English By: @zhonghuajiabot
Editor’s Note: We have published this government report as a companion to our article on the events of the student protests in Tiananmen Square and the co-ordinated riots across Beijing (and other cities) 1989 in China and because to our knowledge (at the time of publication) no known English translation of this government report exists. It is important for research to look into all sides of an argument and we believe access to this translation is for the good of humanity in the search for the truth for better, unbiased documentation of human history. This publically available official government document has been manually translated by our native Mandarin-speaking staff to disprove the western lie that this event is covered up by the state.
Chairman, vice-chairmen, and members!
At the turn of spring and summer in 1989, from the middle of April to the first ten days of June, a small number of people took advantage of the tide of school to set off a planned, organized, and premeditated political turmoil, which developed into a counter-revolutionary riot in the capital Beijing. Their purpose in instigating unrest and riots is to overthrow the leadership of the Communist Party of China and overthrow the Socialist People’s Republic of China. The occurrence and development of this turmoil and counter-revolutionary riot has a profound international background and domestic social foundation. As Comrade Deng Xiaoping said, “this storm will come sooner or later. This is determined by the international climate and China’s own microclimate. It must come and will not be changed by people’s will. “. In this struggle, which concerns the life and death of the party and the country, Comrade Zhao Ziyang made a serious mistake of supporting the turmoil and splitting the party, and he was responsible for the formation and development of the turmoil. In the face of the extremely severe situation, the Party Central Committee has made correct decisions and adopted a series of decisive measures, which have won the firm support of the whole Party and the people of all ethnic groups in the country. The older generation of proletarian revolutionaries represented by Comrade Deng Xiaoping played an extremely important role in winning the victory of this struggle. The Chinese people’s Liberation Army, the armed police force, and the public security cadres and police have made important contributions to stopping the unrest and quelling the counter-revolutionary riot. The broad masses of workers, peasants, and intellectuals persisted in opposing the turmoil and riots, closely united around the Party Central Committee, and showed a high political consciousness and a sense of responsibility as a community. Now, I am entrusted by the State Council to discuss the situation of this turmoil and counter-revolutionary riot. We will report to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on some of the situations that have taken place in Beijing, as well as the work to stop the unrest and quell the counter-revolutionary riot.
1) The Brewing and Premeditation of Unrest Has a Long History
Some political forces in the western world always try to make all socialist countries, including China, give up the socialist road and bring them into the rule of international monopoly capital and into the capitalist orbit. This is their long-term fundamental strategy. Over the years, they have made use of certain mistakes in socialist state policies and temporary economic difficulties to tighten up the implementation of this strategy. In China, a very small number of people, both inside and outside the party, who stubbornly adhere to the position of bourgeois liberalization and engage in political conspiracy, echo this strategy of western countries. They collude with each other. They have been instigating unrest in China for years, intending to overthrow the leadership of the Communist Party and subverting the Socialist People’s Republic. It is for this reason that in the whole process of brewing, premeditating and launching troubles, the use of various means, including manufacturing public opinion, distorting the truth, fabricating rumors to mislead the masses, has shown the distinctive characteristics of mutual cooperation at home and abroad.
Here we will focus on the situation since the Third Plenary Session of the 13th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. In September last year, the Party Central Committee put forward the policy of harnessing the economic environment, rectifying economic order and comprehensively deepening reform. The masses and young students supported this decision and the various measures taken. The overall social order and political situation are stable. This spring, the National People’s Congress passed the report on the work of the government by Comrade Li Peng with an absolute majority of votes in favour (only two against, four abstaining). Of course, the masses of the people and young students have also made many criticisms about the mistakes made by the party and the government in their work, the corruption of some state functionaries, and the unfair distribution in the society. At the same time, they also put forward a lot of requirements and suggestions in promoting democracy, improving the legal system, deepening reform and overcoming bureaucracy. These are all normal phenomena and it is also a problem that the party and the government are taking measures to solve. However, at that time, a very small number of people in the party and in public colluded closely and carried out a large number of extremely abnormal activities secretly.
What is particularly noteworthy is that after Comrade Zhao Ziyang met with an “ultra liberal economist” in the United States on September 19 last year, some Hong Kong newspapers and periodicals that are said to have close ties with Zhao Ziyang’s “think tank” have been vigorously publicized, revealing the political message that “Beijing uses the Hong Kong media to overthrow Deng and protect Zhao”. The chief editorial Li Yi of the anti-CPC magazine, The 90s, published an article called ‘It’s time for the elderly to retire’ on Hong Kong Economic Journal. Another article in The 90s called on Zhao to become a “dictator.”. Hong Kong magazine Liberation also published a long paper, saying that some people in Beijing have obscure relationship with some people in Hong Kong’s media circles. This delicate relationship “has a new case to show, that is, the overthrow of Deng Xiaoping and the protection of Zhao Feng in the recent month,” and said that “Zhao Ziyang is their hope to build a capitalistic China.” In line with this trend of “overthrowing Deng Xiaoping and protecting Zhao”, Beijing Economic Weekly published a dialogue on the current situation between Yan Jiaqi (a researcher at the Institute of political science of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences) and Bao Tong, former Secretary of Zhao Ziyang, attacking that “governance and rectification” will lead to “stagnation” and proposing that one of the major problems China is facing “is not to follow the example of Khrushchev and Liu Shaoqi.” and “China will no longer allow power changes in a non procedural way like the cultural revolution.” The main purpose of this dialogue is to manufacture public opinion in order to cover up Zhao Ziyang’s mistakes, maintain his power and position, and promote bourgeois liberalization more unscrupulously. This dialogue has been published in the full text or abstract of many newspapers and magazines at home and abroad, such as Shanghai World Economic Guide and Hong Kong Mirror.
At the end of last year and the beginning of this year, the collusion was further intensified, and political rallies, joint petitions, newspapers and other activities with very wrong or even reactionary views emerged. For example, on December 7 last year, Peking University Future Institute, led by Jin Guantao, deputy editor in chief of the Series Towards the Future, held a large-scale Seminar on “future China and the world”. In his speech, Jin Guantao said: “the attempt and failure of socialism is one of the two great heritages of mankind in the 20th century.” Ge Yang, editor in chief of the New Observation, immediately stood up as the “oldest” Party member with decades of party experience and said, “Jin Guantao’s denial of socialism and socialism is not too severe, but a little polite.” On January 28 this year, Su Shaozhi (a researcher at the Institute of Marxism Leninism, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences), Fang Lizhi and others held a so-called “new enlightenment Salon” in Beijing’s “Dule bookstore”. In addition to Chinese people, there were also more than 100 journalists from the United States, France and Italy stationed in Beijing. Fang Lizhi said that such gatherings “took a completely critical and thoroughly critical attitude towards the authorities”, “the smell of gunpowder is very strong”, “action is needed now” and “it will be on the street after three consecutive meetings”. At the beginning of February, Fang Lizhi and Chen Jun (members of the reactionary organization “China Democratic Alliance”) and others delivered speeches on the so-called “democracy” and “human rights” issues at the Friendship Hotel. Chen Jun made an analogy between the “May 4th Movement” and the “Xidan Democratic Wall”. Fang Lizhi said: “I hope entrepreneurs, as a new force in China, will cooperate with advanced intellectuals to fight for democracy.” On February 16, Chen Jun held a foreign press conference, widely distributing Fang Lizhi’s letter to Deng Xiaoping, and a letter from 33 people, including Chen Jun, to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, demanding an amnesty and releasing Wei Jingsheng and other so-called “political prisoners” who seriously violated the criminal law. On February 23, Taiwan’s United Daily published “the Beginning of the Great Movement, Great Impact! “, saying “The New York Declaration, the open letter from Beijing, the spring thunder of China, and the surge of democracy,” the article said On February 26, 42 people, including Zhang Xianyang (researcher of Marxism Leninism Institute of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences), Li Honglin (researcher of Fujian Academy of Social Sciences), Bao Zunxin (associate researcher of Institute of history of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences), Ge Yang, etc., jointly wrote to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, demanding the release of the so-called “political prisoners”. Since then, a large number of newspapers and rallies have appeared in some universities in Beijing attacking the Communist Party and the socialist system. For example, on March 1, Tsinghua University and Peking University simultaneously appeared the big character newspaper of “the official denunciation of Deng Xiaoping – a letter to the people”, which includes nonsense that “the politics of the Communist Party is empty talk, power, dictatorship and arbitrariness”, and openly demanded “Abolishing parties and removing ideological principles”. On March 2, Peking University posted a small character newspaper entitled “mourning for the Chinese people”, calling for taking “despotism” and “dictatorship” down. On March 3, Tsinghua University and other institutions appeared a letter to young students signed by the Preparatory Committee of China Democratic Youth Patriotic Association, encouraging “to participate in the torrent of democracy, freedom and human rights under the leadership of Fang Lizhi, a patriotic and democratic fighter.” On March 29, Peking University and other universities posted the article “China’s disappointment and hope” written by Fang Lizhi to Hong Kong’s Ming Bao, claiming that socialism has “completely lost its appeal” and that it is necessary to form a political “pressure group” to implement “reform of political democracy and economic freedom”. What he said about “reform” is actually a code name for total Westernization. On April 6, Peking University posted large-character posters entitled “the call of the times”, which raised the questions of “whether socialism is reasonable to exist” and “whether Marxism Leninism is suitable for China’s national conditions”. On April 13, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications and other universities received the letter of “To All University Students”, written by the student union of Guangxi University, calling for “holding high the portrait of Hu Yaobang and the banner of democracy, freedom, dignity and legal system” to commemorate the May 4th Youth Day. At the same time, in some colleges and universities in Beijing, the so-called “democracy Salon”, “Freedom Forum” and a variety of “research conferences”, “seminars” and “lectures” have appeared one after another. The “democracy Salon” presided over by Wang Dan, a student of Peking University, has held 17 lectures a year, and different activities. They once invited Ren Jiding, the head of the former illegal organization “Human Rights Alliance”, and spread many fallacies around the so-called “new authoritarianism and democratic politics”. They held a seminar in front of the statue of Cervantes, publicly declared that “we want to abolish the one party system, let the Communist Party step down and overthrow the current regime.” they also invited Li Shuxian, Fang Lizhi’s wife, to serve as their “military adviser”. Li Shuxian instigated that “we should legalize the Democratic Salon”, “hold meetings here regularly” and “cancel the ten regulations of Beijing Municipality on processions”. All these made ideological and organizational preparations for the subsequent turmoil. The Ming Bao of Hong Kong commented: “the series signature campaigns launched by Chinese intellectuals to fight for human rights has had a great impact on students. They have already planned to take large-scale actions to express their dissatisfaction with the authorities on the 70th anniversary of the May 4th movement. Hu Yaobang’s sudden death is like throwing a match in a barrel full of gunpowder. ” At that time, a small number of people were planning and organizing a big unrest.
2) From The Beginning, The Student Unrest Was Exploited By The Organizers Of The Unrest
The death of Comrade Hu Yaobang on April 15 brought about the outbreak of the long brewing student unrest and turmoil ahead of time. The masses and young students mourned Comrade Hu Yaobang and expressed their deep grief. Colleges and universities also provided conditions for students’ memorial activities. However, a small number of people took advantage of this opportunity to oppose the leadership of Communist Party and and the socialist system under the pretext of “mourning”. From the very beginning, the student unrest was manipulated and used by a small number of people, which had the nature of political turmoil.
This turmoil was first manifested in a large number of newspapers, slogans, leaflets and elegiac couplets, which wantonly attacked and slandered the party and the government, openly calling for the overthrow of the leadership of the Communist Party and the overthrow of the current government. Some newspapers in Peking University, Tsinghua University and other colleges and universities revile the Communist Party as a “treacherous Party ” and “an organization about to collapse”; some attack the older generation of revolutionaries as “corrupt elderly controls the government” and “dictatorship and authoritarian government”; some attack leading comrades of the Central Committee one by one by their names, saying nonsense about “the good is gone, but the damned are not dead”; and some demand “replacement of the useless government” ; some called for “Abolishing the Communist Party and implementing the multi-party system” and “Abolishing the party branches and political cadres of various organizations, armies, schools and units”; some issued the Declaration on private ownership, calling for “ringing the death knell of public ownership as soon as possible to meet the new tomorrow of the Republic”; some also proposed “inviting the Kuomintang to return to the mainland and establish a two party government” and so on. Many large and small character newspapers slander Comrade Deng Xiaoping and shout “Take down Deng Xiaoping” in obscene language.
From the very beginning, this turmoil was manifested as sharp opposition between bourgeois liberalization and the four cardinal principles. The slogans put forward by the turmoil planners during this period, whether through the “Nine Requirements” first put forward by Wang Dan, the head of the illegal student organization in Tiananmen Square, or the “seven” and “ten” proposed later, the most important of which are two: one is to reevaluate Comrade Hu Yaobang’s merits and demerits; the other is to completely deny the opposition to bourgeois liberalization and release the so-called “wrongly sentenced citizens” during their reactionary activities. The essence of these two articles is to achieve absolute freedom against the four basic principles and realize capitalism in China. In line with this demand, some of the so-called “elites” in the intellectual circles, that is, the very few who stubbornly adhere to the position of bourgeois liberalization, organized various symposiums during this period, and used the opportunity to sell their reactionary ideas. The most prominent one was the symposium held in Beijing on April 19 by the World Economic Guide and New Observation. The forum was presided over by Ge Yang and attended by Yan Jiaqi, Su Shaozhi, Chen Ziming (director of Beijing Institute of Social and Economic Sciences) and Liu ruishao (director of the Beijing Office of the Hong Kong Cultural Newspaper). They also focused on two issues: one was to “redress” Hu Yaobang; the other was to “reassess” the anti liberalization case. They also clearly expressed their support for students’ demonstrations and said that they “saw the future and hope of China”. Later, when the Shanghai Municipal Party Committee made the correct decision to rectify the World Economic Guide, Comrade Zhao Ziyang, who had always connived at bourgeois liberalization, not only refused to support it, but also accused the Shanghai Municipal Party Committee of “messing up” and “putting us into passive position”.
At the instigation and planning of a very small number of people, this turmoil also showed that many of their actions were extremely violent, which violated the constitution, laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China, and were seriously anti democratic and anti law. In spite of the abolition of the Fourth National Congress of the Communist Party of China by the constitution, they did not listen to the dissuasion, and put up large-character posters all over the campus. In spite of the ten regulations of the Standing Committee of the Beijing Municipal People’s Congress on March, they held large-scale parades for days without approval. On the night of April 18 and 19, they attacked the Party Central Committee and the State Council at Xinhua gate and shouted “down with the Communist Party” slogan. This is something that has never happened in the “Cultural Revolution”. They violated the management regulations of Tiananmen Square and forcibly occupied the square for many times. On April 22, it almost caused Comrade Hu Yaobang’s memorial service to be unable to proceed normally. They ignored the relevant regulations of Beijing Municipality and established the “United Students’ Union” (later renamed “the Union of Students’ Autonomy of Colleges and Universities”) without registration. In addition, they have “usurped power” from the legitimate student union and graduate student union elected through democratic election; they took over the office and radio station in spite of the law and school discipline, and behaved unscrupulously, resulting in serious anarchy on campus.
Fabricating rumors, demagogues are another important means adopted by a small number of organizers and planners. At the beginning of the school unrest, they made a rumor that “Li Peng scolded Hu Yaobang at the meeting of the Political Bureau. Hu was angry to death” and induced people to point the spear at Comrade Li Peng. In fact, the meeting of the Political Bureau discussed the issue of education. When Comrade Li Tieying, member of the Political Bureau, State Councilor and director of the State Education Commission, was explaining the relevant documents, Comrade Hu Yaobang suddenly had a heart attack. He was immediately rescued on the spot and was sent to the hospital after relief. There was no anger at all. On the night of April 19, a female student in the Foreign Language Department of Normal University was hit and injured by a trolley bus on the way back to school after attending the party. Unfortunately, she was killed. Some people rumored that “the Communist Party’s military and police killed the students by driving”, which aroused some students who did not know the truth. In the early morning of April 20, our public security officers and police took the students who attacked and besieged Xinhua gate away from the scene and took them to Peking University by bus. There was also a rumor about the so-called “4.20 Massacre”, saying that “the police beat people in Xinhua gate, not only students, but also workers, women and children,” more than a thousand scientific and technological workers fell into a pool of blood “, which made some people more angry. On April 22, after Comrade Hu Yaobang’s memorial meeting ended and Li Peng and other leading comrades of the Central Committee left the Great Hall of the People, some people carefully orchestrated a scene in order to create an excuse to attack Comrade Li Peng. They first made a rumor that “Premier Li Peng promised to come out to meet the students in the square at 12:45”, then three students knelt down on the steps outside the east gate of the Great Hall of the People and handed out a “petition”. Then they declared that “Li Peng suddenly changed his mind, refused to meet and lied to the students”, inciting the strong dissatisfaction of tens of thousands of students in the square, which almost caused students attacking the Great Hall of the People. Because of the demagogues and instigation of these rumors, the antagonism between young students and the government has been greatly intensified. Taking advantage of this sentiment, a very small number of people put forward the slogan of “peaceful petition, ignored by the government, tell the whole country to unify student strikes”, resulting in a serious situation in which 60,000 college students in Beijing were on strike. Many other universities have also been on strike one after another, escalating the turmoil.
Another feature of this turmoil is that it has spread to the whole society and all over the country, instead of being limited to universities or Beijing. After Comrade Hu Yaobang’s memorial service, some people went to middle schools, factories, shops and rural areas to make speeches in the street, distribute leaflets, put up slogans, raise money, and do everything possible to expand the situation. In some middle schools, slogans of “opposing the Communist Party of China” have appeared; in some middle schools, large-character posters of “Long live the strike of classes and exams”; and some factories have put up leaflets of “uniting workers and peasants to overthrow tyranny”. The organizers and planners of the unrest also put forward the slogan of “going south to north, east to west” in an attempt to launch a nationwide strike. Universities in Nanjing, Wuhan, Xi’an, Changsha, Shanghai, Harbin and other places all found students from Beijing, and students from Tianjin, Hebei, Anhui and Zhejiang also went to Beijing to participate in the parade. In Changsha, Xi’an and other places, serious illegal and criminal activities such as beating, smashing, robbing and burning took place.
At the beginning of the turmoil, various political forces from abroad intervened. Hu Ping, Chen Jun, Liu Xiaobo, members of the reactionary organization “China Democratic League” supported by the Kuomintang, jointly issued an open letter to Chinese college students from New York, USA, asking students to “consolidate the organizational ties established in this activity, and strive to carry out effective activities as a strong group”, “use opposing the anti-liberalization movement of 1987 as a breakthrough”, “strengthen our ties with various news media, strengthen our ties with other sectors of society, and strive for their support and participation in the campaign.” Wang Bingzhang and Tang Guangzhong, two leaders of the “China Democratic League”, also flew from New York to Tokyo in a hurry, trying to rush back to Beijing and directly intervene in the turmoil. Some overseas Chinese intellectuals who advocated the implementation of the western capitalist system in China, led by Fang Lizhi, sent the “Declaration on democracy in Chinese mainland” from Columbia University, advocating that “people must have the right to choose the ruling party” and incite people to overthrow the Communist Party. A person with the pseudonym “Red Rock” sent back the “ten opinions on amending the Constitution” from the United States by fax and telephone, proposing that deputies to the National People’s Congress and the judges of courts at all levels should be “elected from non party candidates”, attempting to completely exclude the Communist Party from the state power organs and judicial organs. A group of former members of the “Chinese Spring” who lived in the United States hastily formed the “Chinese Democratic Party” and sent a letter to the whole nation to some universities in Beijing, inciting students to “demand the conservative bureaucrats to step down” and “urge the Communist Party of China to end its autocratic rule”. Some reactionary political forces from Hong Kong, Taiwan, the United States and Western countries have also intervened through various channels and means. Many western news agencies have shown their unusual enthusiasm toward China, especially the voice of America, which spends three hours a day on more than 10 programmes, and has been constantly chatting about China, spreading rumors and confusing people. It has fanned the flames, and fueled the turmoil.
A large number of facts show that what appears in front of us is not a general student unrest, but a political turmoil with clear political purpose, which deviates from the track of democracy and legal system, uses despicable political means to incite a large number of people and students who do not know the truth, and instigates a political turmoil that denies the leadership of the Communist Party and denies the socialist system in a planned, organized and premeditated way. If we do not analyze and understand problems in essence, we will make great mistakes and become extremely passive in the struggle.
3) “4.26” Editorial Of The People’s Daily is Correct in defining the nature of the turmoil
From the death of Comrade Hu Yaobang on April 15 to the end of his funeral on April 22, Comrade Zhao Ziyang had been tolerant and indulgent in the increasingly obvious signs of unrest during the memorial activities, which contributed to the formation and development of the chaos. Faced with the increasingly severe situation, many comrades of the Central Committee and Beijing Municipality felt that the nature of the matter had changed. He repeatedly proposed to Comrade Zhao Ziyang that the Central Committee should have clear guidelines and Countermeasures in order to stop the development of the situation. However, Zhao always avoided serious analysis and discussion on the nature of the matter. After Comrade Hu Yaobang’s memorial service, comrades of the Central Committee once again suggested that a meeting should be held before his visit to North Korea on April 23. However, he refused to accept it and went to golf as if nothing had happened. Because of his attitude, the party and the government lost the opportunity to stop the unrest.
On the afternoon of April 24, the Beijing Municipal Party Committee and the Municipal People’s Government made a report to Comrade Wan Li. At the suggestion of Comrade Wan Li and presided over by Comrade Li Peng that evening, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau carefully analyzed and studied the development of the situation. The meeting unanimously agreed that the various events at that time indicated that, under the manipulation and instigation of a very small number of people, a planned and organized political struggle against the party and socialism had been put before us. At the same time, Beijing Municipal Party committee and municipal people’s government were required to mobilize the masses, strive for the majority, isolate the minority, and strive to quell the unrest and stabilize the situation as soon as possible. In the morning of the next day, Comrade Deng Xiaoping delivered an important speech in which he fully agreed with and supported the decision of the Standing Committee of the Central Committee and made a profound analysis of the nature of the turmoil. He pointed out to the point that this is not a general tide of learning, but a political turmoil that denies the leadership of the Communist Party and the socialist system. Comrade Deng Xiaoping’s speech has greatly improved the understanding of the broad masses of cadres and enhanced their confidence and courage in calming down the turmoil and stabilizing the overall situation. The editorial of the people’s daily on April 26 embodied the decision of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau and the spirit of Comrade Deng Xiaoping’s speech, and pointed out the nature of the turmoil. At the same time, it clearly distinguishes a small number of organizers and planners of unrest from the vast number of young students. The publication of the editorial made the vast majority of cadres feel that they have the bottom of their hearts and the direction of their actions, so that they can carry out their work with a clear-cut banner.
After the editorial of people’s daily was published, under the direct leadership of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, the Beijing Municipal Committee of the CPC and the Municipal People’s government successively held various meetings inside and outside the party to adhere to principles and use various forms to clarify rumors. We should support the school leaders, Party members and student leaders to work boldly, dissuade the students from participating in the demonstrations; we should actively carry out various dialogue activities and strive to win over the masses. State Council spokesman yuan Mu and other comrades and students. The dialogue between the leaders of the relevant departments of the Central Committee and the students, as well as the dialogues between the leading comrades of the CPC Beijing Municipal Committee and the Municipal People’s government, and the students have achieved good results. At the same time, we should conscientiously do a good job in the work of factories, rural areas, shops, primary and secondary schools and streets to stabilize the overall situation and prevent the unrest from spreading to the whole society. In accordance with the spirit of the editorials, all provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions should also work hard in their own areas to prevent the influence of Beijing’s events from spreading to other places.
Due to the clear-cut banner of the editorial on April 26, the organizers and planners of the turmoil were forced to make a strategic turn. Before the publication of the editorial, a large number of slogans were against the Communist Party, socialism and the four basic principles. After the editorial was published, on April 26, the illegal organization of Beijing’s ” Beijing Students’ Autonomous Federation” issued a “New Student Union- Order” to change its strategy, demanding that on April 27, it “March to Tiananmen Square under the banner of supporting the Communist Party”. The stipulated slogans include “supporting the Communist Party”, “supporting socialism”, “upholding socialism”, “upholding the constitution”, etc., and under the instruction of Fang Lizhi, the subversive slogans such as “overthrow the bureaucratic government”, “fight against corrupt government” and “fight against dictatorship” had been changed into slogans approved by people from all walks of life, such as “anti bureaucracy, anti-corruption and anti privilege”. At this time, Japan’s current affairs agency issued a report from Beijing entitled “young officials form groups supporting democratization”, calling some figures in the so-called “Zhao Ziyang think tank” as “young officials of the CPC Central Committee and the government”, saying that they “frequently contacted representatives of the new autonomous associations of Peking University, Tsinghua University, National People’s Congress, Beijing Normal University and other participating universities in the march to give students ideas. In the March 27, students held slogans such as “support socialism”,”support the leadership of the Communist Party”, which is also in accordance with the instructions of the group. The leaders of the student unrest originally planned to “March for a hundred days and strike for an indefinite period”. After the editorial was published, the enthusiasm was gone. Compared with the march on April 27, the number of students on May 4 decreased from more than 30,000 to less than 20,000, and the number of onlookers was also greatly reduced. After the May 4th movement, 80% of the students resumed their classes after the party and government leaders in Colleges and universities did their work. After the publication of the “4.26” editorial in the People’s Daily, the situation has also rapidly stabilized. Obviously, if we do some more work, the turmoil caused by a small number of people taking advantage of the student unrest may be calmed down. A large number of facts have proved that the editorial of the People’s Daily on April 26 is correct. It has indeed played a role in stabilizing the Capital and the whole country.
4) Comrade Zhao Ziyang’s “May 4th” Speech Is A Turning Point For The Escalation Of Unrest
Comrade Zhao Ziyang, as the general secretary of the Communist Party of China, took a fickle and capricious attitude when the turmoil was nearly over. Originally, during his visit to North Korea, when members of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau asked for his opinions, he telegraphed clearly that he “fully agreed with Comrade Deng Xiaoping’s decision on dealing with the current turmoil”. After returning to China on April 30, he once again said at the meeting of the Standing Committee of the political bureau that he agreed with Comrade Deng Xiaoping’s speech and the nature of the unrest in the editorial on April 26, and believed that the handling of the student unrest in the previous paragraph was good. However, a few days later, when he met with the representatives of the Asian Bank’s annual meeting on the afternoon of May 4, he made an opinion totally opposite to the decision of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau, Comrade Deng Xiaoping’s speech and the spirit of the editorial. First, when there has been obvious turmoil, he said that “there will be no major turmoil in China”; second, when a large number of facts have proved that the essence of the turmoil is to deny the leadership of the Communist Party and the socialist system, he also insisted that “they absolutely do not want to oppose our fundamental system, but to ask us to eliminate the shortcomings in our work”; third, in the context of a large number of facts, he insisted that the essence of the turmoil is to deny the leadership of the Communist Party and the socialist system. All sorts of facts have shown that when a very few people use the student unrest to instigate the demonstration, he only says that “it is inevitable” and “some people attempt to use it”, thus fundamentally denying the correct judgment of the Central Committee that a very small number of people are already creating unrest. Comrade Zhao Ziyang’s speech was drafted by Bao Tong in advance. Bao Tong also asked the Central People’s broadcasting station and television station to broadcast immediately in the afternoon of the same day, and to broadcast for three consecutive days; he also asked the People’s Daily to be prominently published on the front page the next day, and at the same time to publish a large number of correct reflections from all aspects. However, different opinions are not allowed to be published in internal reference books. Comrade Zhao Ziyang’s speech, greatly exaggerated by the People’s Daily and some newspapers, caused serious ideological confusion among the broad masses of cadres and the masses, bolstering the morale of the organizers and planners of the turmoil.
Comrade Zhao Ziyang’s speech is quite different from the Central Committee’s policy. This has not only aroused extensive discussion at home, but also made it clear to the public opinion abroad. In a report, Reuters said Zhao’s speech “contrasts sharply with the severe condemnation of students a week ago” and “a major revision of last week’s judgment.”. The French “Le Monde” on May 6 also pointed out that “the head of the Party (referring to Zhao Ziyang) seems to have excellently made the development of the situation favorable to him”. After the speech was put out, leading cadres at all levels, Party members and League members, as well as the backbone of the masses, especially comrades in Colleges and universities, felt confused ideologically and at a loss in their work. Many people objected. Some people said, “there are two voices from the Central Committee. Who is right and who is wrong is subject to whom?” Some people say, “we should be in line with the Central Committee, and which one?” Some said, “Ziyang is good at the top, but we are the villains at the bottom.” School cadres and student backbones generally think that they have been “betrayed”. They feel very heavy. Some of them shed tears and the school work is totally passive. At that time, the situation of the Beijing Municipal Party committee and the Municipal People’s government was very difficult. Knowing that the opinions of the Central Committee were not consistent, they had to say against their will that they were consistent, just because “the emphasis is different.”. Many things need to be asked for instructions from the Central Committee, but Comrade Zhao Ziyang, as general secretary, has not held a meeting. At the strong request of the Beijing Municipal Party committee and the Municipal People’s government, a meeting was held on May 8, but did not listen to the report from Beijing. At the meeting, some comrades reflected that Comrade Zhao Ziyang’s talk on May 4 was inconsistent with the spirit of the editorial on April 26. He said in a stern voice: “I made a mistake and I am responsible.” At another meeting, some comrades reflected that comrades working in the front line all said that they were “betrayed”, and Comrade Zhao Ziyang angrily asked, “who has betrayed you? Only in the cultural revolution can people be betrayed. ” At that time, many members of the Municipal Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Municipal People’s government were responsible for lying to the people’s government at that time We are seeing that the situation is getting worse and worse, and some measures can not be carried out even if we want to.
On the contrary, the organizers and planners of the unrest received encouragement from Comrade Zhao Ziyang’s talk. Yan Jiaqi, Cao Siyuan (director of the Development Research Institute of Sitong company) and others said: “now there is a turning point. We should mobilize the intellectual community to support Zhao Ziyang.” Zhang Xianyang said: “not to use students, Zhao Ziyang will use it now.” At the instigation of Comrade Zhao Ziyang and the planning of a few people, the leaders of the “autonomous association” of Peking University and Normal University announced a new strike that night. Many schools also announced to continue the strike, and organized “pickets” to prohibit students willing to resume classes from going to the classroom. Then there was a new wave of demonstrations. On May 9, hundreds of journalists from more than 30 news organizations marched on the streets and submitted petitions. Tens of thousands of students from more than ten universities, including Peking University, Tsinghua University, Renmin University, Normal university and University of Political Science and Law, took to the streets again to demonstrate, support journalists, distribute leaflets, and encourage strikes and hunger strikes. From then on, the situation suddenly reversed and the turmoil reached a climax again. Under the influence of Beijing, the situation in the field, which has been stabilized, has become tense again. Shortly after Comrade Zhao Ziyang’s speech, on May 9 and 10, a large number of demonstration students attacked the provincial Party committee and the provincial government, and the International Economic and Technological Cooperation Fair, Import and Export Commodity Fair and Folk Art Festival, which were being held at that time, had a very bad impact both at home and abroad.
5) The Threat Of A Hunger Strike Exacerbated The Unrest
The good people asked whether the government didn’t understand them enough, the caring was not enough, and the concessions were not enough? This is not the case at all. From the beginning of the turmoil, the party and the government fully affirmed the patriotic enthusiasm of the majority of young students and their concern for the country and the people. They fully affirmed that the requirements of promoting democracy, deepening reform, punishing official turnover and eliminating corruption are consistent with the wishes of the party and the government, and hope to solve problems through the normal procedures of democracy and legal system. However, this kind of good wish has not been responded positively. The government has proposed that it hopes to communicate ideas and enhance understanding through multi-channel, multi-level and multi-form dialogues, while illegal student organizations have put forward high prices for dialogue conditions. They demanded that the participants of the dialogue “must be members of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee, the vice chairman of the National People’s Congress, and the vice premier of the State Council or above.” each dialogue “must issue a joint announcement and be jointly signed by both sides.” the dialogue should be held in rotation at places designated by the government and student representatives respectively. “. What kind of dialogue is this? It’s all a gesture of political negotiation with the party and the government. In particular, after Comrade Zhao Ziyang’s “May 4th” speech, a very small number of people took advantage of this opportunity to regard the restraint of the party and the government as weak and deceptive, asking higher prices and more harsh conditions, thus fueling the unrest and upgrading it step by step. Even under such circumstances, the party and the government still adopt a very tolerant and restrained attitude, hoping to continue to maintain the channel of dialogue, so as to help educate the masses and win the majority. At 2:00 a.m. on May 13, the head of the “Gao Zilian” put forward a request for dialogue. At 4:00 a.m., the general office of the CPC Central Committee and the general office of the State Council agreed. However, after dawn, they broke their promise and cancelled the dialogue. On the morning of May 13, the letters and calls Bureau of the general office of the CPC Central Committee, the general office of the State Council and the general office of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress again informed them that they decided to have a dialogue with the students on the 15th. On the one hand, they agreed. On the other hand, they made a great contribution to the number of participants. First, they proposed a list of 20 people. After the government agreed, they asked to increase the number to 200. Before full discussion, they accused the government of “insincerity in the dialogue”. Only four hours after receiving the notice of the dialogue, they rushed out the prepared “hunger strike declaration” and launched an event with more than 3000 people participated in the hunger strike, which occupied Tiananmen Square for a long time. Wang Dan, the head of the “The Autonomous Federation of University Students”, said that the hunger strike would begin on the 13th, “just in time for Gorbachev’s visit to China to suppress them.”. A small number of organizers and planners of the unrest took the students on hunger strike as “hostages”, risked their lives and took extremely bad measures to blackmail the government to make the unrest more serious.
In the process of students’ hunger strike, the party and the government continued to maintain an extremely restrained attitude and made every effort to do what they could in all aspects. First of all, school staff, leading cadres at all levels, and even party and state leaders visited the students on hunger strike in Tiananmen Square for many times to conduct ideological counseling on them. The second is to assist the Red Cross Society, has deployed more than 100 ambulances, deployed hundreds of medical and health personnel, guarding the fasting scene day and night, and mobilized 52 hospitals to vacate nearly 2000 beds, to ensure that students who suffer from hunger strike or illness receive timely rescue and treatment. The third is to provide all kinds of materials to reduce the suffering of students on hunger strike and ensure their safety. The Beijing Municipal Party committee and the Municipal People’s government dispatched cadres, workers and vehicles to transport drinking water and provide salt and sugar for students on hunger strike day and night through the Red Cross Society; the environmental sanitation bureau dispatched water sprinklers, equipped with washbasins and towels for students on hunger strike to wash; pharmaceutical companies transferred sufficient anti heatstroke, cold, and anti diarrhea drugs to the Red Cross for distribution; food departments delivered large quantities of drinks Materials, bread, etc. were used for emergency rescue of students; 6000 straw hats were dispatched by the commercial department, and 1000 quilts were transported by the Beijing Military Region at the request of Beijing Municipality for students on hunger strike to escape the summer heat in the daytime and keep out the cold at night; in order to maintain the hygiene of the hunger strike site, temporary flushing toilets were set up, and sanitation workers also cleaned the hunger strike site in the middle of the night; before the heavy rain on the 18th, the public transportation was carried out. The head office transferred 78 buses and more than 400 planks from the Materials Bureau for the students on hunger strike to shelter themselves from the rain and tide.
During the 7-day hunger strike, there were no deaths of students due to hunger strike. However, all these have not received any positive response. Facts have repeatedly taught the people that a very small number of organizers and planners of the turmoil are determined to fight against us to the end. They can tolerate a thousand times and retreat 10000 steps, and they can not solve the problem.
What needs to be specially pointed out here is that under the circumstances of the rapid deterioration of the situation, Comrade Zhao Ziyang not only did not do what he should do, but also incited the press to conduct a wrong direction of public opinion, making the already deteriorating situation more difficult to deal with. On May 6, Comrade Zhao Ziyang told Hu Qili and Rui Xingwen, who were in charge of the propaganda and ideological work of the Central Committee at that time, that the coverage of the school tide was “relaxed a little, the parade was reported, and the degree of publicity of the news increased a little, and the risk was not great.”. He even said: “in the face of the aspirations of the people at home and the international trend of progress, we can only make the best use of the situation.”. Here, he called the counter current of anti Communist and anti socialist as “the aspiration of the domestic people” and “the trend of international progress”. His instructions were conveyed to the main news units in the capital on the same day, and then deployed many times. In this way, many central newspapers and periodicals such as the people’s daily fully affirmed and actively supported the marches, sit ins and hunger strikes, and carried out numerous and even exaggerated reports. Even Hong Kong newspapers were surprised by this strange phenomenon.
Under the erroneous guidance of public opinion, since May 15, more and more people have been marching in the streets to support students, and their momentum has grown from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands. More than 200,000 students from all over the country have come to support them. For a time, it seems that not participating in the parade is “unpatriotic”, and not expressing support is “not caring about the life and death of students”. In this case, the students on the hunger strike can not stop. Many teachers and students’ parents wrote letters to the leading organs and news organizations, called on newspapers, radio stations and television stations not to force students on hunger strike to death, asked to be kind, save the children, and stop this “killing public opinion”, but it had no effect. As a result of student hunger strikes and public demonstrations, social order in the capital, Beijing, has fallen into chaos. The world-famous high-level meeting between China and the Soviet Union has been seriously disrupted. Some of the activity schedules have been changed and some have been cancelled. At the same time, since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the number of marches in small and medium-sized cities across the country has increased dramatically, even in some large cities.
In order to support students and fuel the unrest, some so-called “elites” who stubbornly adhere to the position of bourgeois liberalization have taken to the front stage barefooted. On the evening of May 13, Yan Jiaqi, Su Shaozhi, Bao Zunxin and others posted a big character newspaper “we can’t be silent any more” at Peking University, mobilizing intellectuals to participate in the march in support of students’ hunger strike initiated by them. On May 14, 12 people, including Yan Jiaqi, Bao Zunxin, Li Honglin, Dai Qing (reporter of Guangming Daily), Yu Haocheng (former president of mass Publishing House), Li Zehou (researcher of Philosophy Institute of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences), Su Xiaokang (Lecturer of Beijing Broadcasting University), Wen Yuankai (Professor of China University of Science and Technology), Liu Zaifu (director of Literature Institute of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences) issued the ‘Our urgent appeal for today’s situation’, demanding that illegal student organizations be declared legal, saying that if they fail to meet the requirement, they will also join the hunger strike. This appeal was published in Guangming Daily and broadcast on CCTV. These people also went to Tiananmen Square many times to make speeches, incite and slander our government as “an incompetent government”, and said that the student hunger strike “saw the glorious future of China”. Then, it formed an illegal “Capital Intellectual Association” and issued the May 16 statement, threatening that if the government does not accept the political demands of a few people, “it will most likely lead a promising China to the abyss of real turmoil.”
As the situation became more and more serious day by day, Comrade Zhao Ziyang took the opportunity to meet Gorbachev on May 16 and consciously directed the spearhead of the struggle to Comrade Deng Xiaoping, which further worsened the situation. At the beginning of the meeting, he said: “on the most important issues, Comrade Deng Xiaoping still needs to be at the helm. Since the Thirteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, when dealing with the most important issues, we have always informed Comrade Deng Xiaoping and consulted him. ” He also said that this was the “first time” that he had publicly disclosed the “decision” of the Chinese party. The next day, Yan Jiaqi, Bao Zunxin and others issued the extremely rampant and vicious “5.17 Declaration”. They cursed: “because the dictator had unlimited power, the government had lost its responsibility and humanity.” the Qing Dynasty had been dead for 76 years, but there was still an emperor without the title of emperor in China, an old and fatuous dictator. “. “Yesterday afternoon, general secretary Zhao Ziyang publicly announced that all China’s decisions must go through this old dictator.” they yelled: “politics of the elderly must end! The dictator must resign! ” For this extremely reactionary clamor. Some newspapers and magazines in Hong Kong and Taiwan echoed each other. Hong Kong’s “Express” published an article on May 18, which said that “Zhao Ziyang’s speech is full of hints, and the current domestic smoky atmosphere is all caused by Deng Xiaoping’s helm” and “the current turbulent situation is going to bring down Deng and Li, and Zhao Ziyang’s role can be said to be ready to come out.”. He also said that “if the fall of Deng Xiaoping is successful, and China’s reform can really embark on the road of enlightened rule of law and realize democracy, it will be good news for Hong Kong.”. In the roar of this school, there are numerous slogans that curse Comrade Deng Xiaoping and attack Comrade Li Peng. Some asked for “Deng Xiaoping to step down” and some propose that “Li Peng step down, thank the country and the people”. At the same time, slogans such as “support Zhao Ziyang”, “long live Zhao Ziyang” and “Zhao Ziyang be promoted to the chairman of the Military Commission” and other slogans filled the parade and Tiananmen Square. The turmoil planners tried to take advantage of chaos to seize power. They distributed leaflets declaring the establishment of the “Preparatory Committee of the Beijing Municipal People’s Congress of all sectors” to replace the Municipal People’s Congress, and advocated the establishment of a “Beijing district government” to replace the legitimate Beijing Municipal People’s government. They attacked the State Council elected according to law as a “puppet government”, rumored that more than a dozen ministries such as the Ministry of foreign affairs had “declared independence” and separated from the State Council, and more than 30 countries in the world had severed diplomatic relations with China. They also made a rumor that “Deng Xiaoping has stepped down”, so some people carried the coffin to March, burned the simulation of Comrade Deng Xiaoping, and set off firecrackers in Tiananmen Square to celebrate their “victory”.
The situation in the capital is becoming more and more serious, anarchism is rampant, and many places have fallen into chaos and white terror. In this case, if our party and government do not take resolute and decisive measures, it will seriously delay the opportunity again and cause irreparable huge losses, which the broad masses of the people will never allow.
6) Martial Law In Some Parts Of Beijing Is The Right Measure That As To Be Taken
In order to ensure the social peace of Beijing, protect the safety of citizens’ lives and property, and ensure the normal performance of official duties by the central government organs and the Beijing municipal government, the State Council has decided to set up some areas of Beijing in accordance with the power granted by Article 89, item 16, of the constitution of the People’s Republic of China, in the case that the police force in Beijing is seriously insufficient and cannot maintain normal production, work and living, the order of Martial law was imposed. This is an unavoidable measure and a decisive and correct decision.
On May 19, the Central Committee held a meeting of cadres of the party, government and military organs in the capital, announcing the decision to take further decisive measures to stop the unrest. Comrade Zhao Ziyang stubbornly sticks to the wrong position that is opposite to the correct decision-making of the Central Committee. He neither agrees to speak with Comrade Li Peng at the meeting, nor does he agree to preside over the meeting, or even to attend a meeting. He openly exposes his attitude of splitting up with the party to the whole party, the whole country and the whole world.
Before that, on May 17, members of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee discussed the issue of martial law in some parts of Beijing. Because of the political needs of the counter revolution, a very small number of people who held the party’s and state’s core secrets leaked the secrets of martial law on the same day. A person working next to Comrade Zhao Ziyang said to the head of the illegal student organization that ‘now the army wants to “suppress” you, and others agree, that is, Zhao Ziyang opposes it. You should be prepared.’ On the evening of the 17th, Bao Tong held a meeting. After disclosing the secrets of the impending martial law, Bao Tong delivered a “farewell speech” warning the participants not to disclose the plot at the meeting to others, otherwise they would be “traitors” or “Judas”. On May 19, it was Gao Shan, deputy director of the political system reform research office, who rushed to the Institute of economic restructuring and delivered the so-called “upper” instructions to those in the meeting. Later, under the chairmanship of Chen Yiya (director of the Institute of Economic Restructuring), the six point statement on the current situation was drafted in the name of the Institute of Economic Restructuring, the Development Research Institute of the Agricultural Research Center of the State Council, the Institute of International Issues of CITIC Corporation, and the Beijing Youth Economic Society. The six point statement was broadcast in Tiananmen Square and widely distributed. The statement called for “making public the decision-making insides and differences of senior leaders”, called for “convening a special session of the National People’s Congress” and “convening a special congress of the Communist Party of China”, and instructed students in Tiananmen Square to “end the hunger strike as soon as possible”, implying that the government would “take extreme actions (military control)”. Then, some people who claimed to be from the “Sports and Political Commissar” rushed to Tiananmen Square to give a speech, saying that “with great grief and indignation, an absolutely true news has been released that general secretary Zhao Ziyang has been removed”, calling on the national strike and market strike, and inciting the masses to “take immediate action and carry out a decisive struggle”. The speech was soon printed as an extra of the People’s Daily and widely distributed. On that night, a leaflet entitled “some opinions on the strategy of school sports” was also found in public places such as Beijing Railway Station Square, indicating that “at present, hunger strike dialogue is no longer our means and requirement. It should be changed to sit quietly and put forward new political requirements and slogans with a clear-cut banner, namely: (1) Comrade Zhao Ziyang can’t leave; (2) the National Congress of the Communist Party of China will be held immediately Special meeting; (3) to hold a special session of the National People’s Congress immediately “, and said that” we should not adopt the attitude of being anxious and frightened when the army arrives. “This attitude and way of treating the army should be explained and publicized repeatedly to the students before they arrive.”. Recently, some leaders of the “The Autonomous Federation of University Students” and “The Autonomous Federation of Workers” who have been arrested and brought to justice have also given an account. At about 4:00 p.m. on May 19, some people claimed to be staff members of a central organ and went to the “Tiananmen Square headquarters” with a note, revealing that martial law was about to be implemented. It is a very small number of people who hold the party’s and state’s core secrets closely combined with the organizers and planners of the unrest, so that they can adjust their strategies in time, and announce that the hunger strike will be changed into a sit in 45 minutes before the Central Committee holds the capital party, government and army cadres’ meeting that night. This creates the illusion that since students have stopped fasting, the government does not need to be under martial law to confuse the masses by organizing forces. People who don’t know the truth are forced to set up roadblocks at all major intersections to block military vehicles, so as to continue to organize public opinion, confuse people and disturb people’s minds. On the one hand, they maliciously cursed Comrade Deng Xiaoping and other proletarian revolutionaries of the older generation, saying that “we do not want Deng Xiaoping’s wisdom and experience”, on the one hand, they touted Comrade Zhao Ziyang, saying that “the party has no Ziyang, and the country has no hope”, calling for “returning our Ziyang”. They also conspired to gather strength and create greater unrest. They claimed that they would mobilize 200,000 people to occupy Tiananmen Square and organize a city wide general strike on May 20. They also cooperated with Comrade Zhao Ziyang’s illness and asked for leave for three days on the 19th, threatening to establish a “new government” in three days.
Under extremely urgent circumstances, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council resolutely decided to impose martial law in some parts of the capital from 10 am on the 20th, so as to prevent the situation from getting worse, grasp the initiative to stop the unrest, and support the masses of people who are against the turmoil and yearn for stability. However, as our decision-making has been mastered by the organizers and planners of the turmoil, we still encounter great difficulties and obstacles in entering the city. On the eve of the martial law and the first two days after the martial law, all major traffic intersections were blocked, more than 220 buses were hijacked as roadblocks, and the traffic was paralyzed, and all martial law forces could not enter the designated places in time as planned. The residences of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council continue to be besieged. Speeches incited on the streets can be seen everywhere. Leaflets that create rumors abound. Tens of thousands of people demonstrate in succession. Beijing, the capital, is in chaos and terror. In the next few days, the martial law forces entered the city in different ways. The armed police and the public security officers persisted in their duties despite all difficulties. Workers, citizens and government cadres were organized in all urban and suburban areas, and a mass order maintenance team of about 120,000 people was set up in the capital. The militia was also deployed in the remote suburban counties. Relying on the joint efforts of the army, the police and the people, the capital’s transportation and health were improved. The order of production and life has gradually improved, and people’s hearts have gradually become stable. However, the activities of a small number of people creating unrest have not stopped for a day, and the goal of overthrowing the leadership of the Communist Party has not changed at all. The situation is developing day by day in the direction of counter revolutionary riots.
After martial law, an important strategy of the organizers and planners of the unrest is to continue to occupy Tiananmen Square. They want to take the square as the so-called “center of the school movement and even the whole nation”. Once the government makes any decision, they are ready to “make a strong response” and “form a united front against the government”. They have long planned to stir up bloodshed in the square, believing that “as long as the government does not withdraw from the square, the government will carry out repression” and “bloodshed can arouse people’s awareness and disintegrate the government”. In order to support the situation in the square, they relied on funds provided by reactionary forces at home and abroad, constantly improved facilities and equipped with advanced communication tools. They spent more than 100,000 yuan a day and began to illegally purchase weapons. Relying on the tents provided by the Hong Kong solidarity group, they established the so-called “freedom village” in the square, opened the so-called “Democratic University”, and claimed to make it a “Whampoa Military Academy in the new era”. They also set up a goddess statue in front of the monument to the people’s heroes, which was originally called “the goddess of liberty”, and later renamed it “the God of Democracy”. They took American democracy and freedom as their spiritual pillar. Liu Xiaobo and other behind the scenes planners worried that the students who were willing to sit still would not be able to adhere to it, so they personally went to the front desk and made a 48-72-hour hunger strike farce attended by four people to cheer the young students on. They said: “as long as the flag of the square does not fall, we can persist in the struggle, radiate the whole country until the collapse of the government.”
The organizers and planners of the unrest continued to organize various illegal activities by taking advantage of the government’s attitude of restraint not to be adopted after the martial law. Following the illegal organizations such as the “The Autonomous Federation of University Students”, “The Autonomous Federation of Workers”, “hunger strike regiment”, “Tiananmen Square headquarters” and “Capital Intellectual Circles Federation”, they have successively established such illegal organizations as the “patriotic and constitutional alliance of all walks of life in the capital” and “the Beijing citizens’ Autonomous Association”. In the name of the Institute of economic restructuring, the Development Research Institute of the Agricultural Research Center of the State Council, and the Beijing Youth Economic Association, they openly cabled some troops to sow dissension and instigate rebellion. They organized special public opinion groups, organized underground newspapers and engaged in underground activities to subvert the government. They formed a diehard party and took an underground oath, claiming that “they would not betray their conscience, never yield to autocracy, and never submit to the emperor of China in the 1980s.”. Wan Runnan, general manager of Sitong company, held a meeting with some leaders of “The Autonomous Federation of University Students” in the international hotel, and put forward six conditions for withdrawing from Tiananmen Square, namely, “the army goes back, martial law is lifted, Li Peng steps down, Deng Xiaoping and Yang Shangkun retire, Zhao Ziyang returns”, and is ready to organize the so-called “triumphant march in midnight”. What is particularly serious is that after Comrade Zhao Ziyang asked for sick leave and left the post of general secretary, there is no hope of solving problems within the party. Instead, they hope to hold an emergency meeting of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. Yan Jiaqi and Bao Zunxin called the leaders of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, saying that “at present, the constitution has been brutally trampled on by a few people. We urgently suggest that an emergency meeting of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress be held immediately to solve the serious problems currently faced.”. With the support and Inspiration of a member of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, the Sitong Institute for social development issued a consultation letter on “proposing to immediately hold an emergency meeting of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress”, solicited the signatures of some members of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, and sent an urgent telegram to some members of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress in other places. By means of conspiracy, when sending letters and telegrams to some members of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, they only suggested that the meeting should be held, rather than their real opinions. They tried to deceive some comrades who did not know the truth, or even embezzled their names to force others to sell their traitors. After doing these things, Yan Jiaqi and Bao Zunxin published in the Ming Pao of Hong Kong a “solution to the current problems in China on the track of democracy and legal system — a letter to Li Peng,” calling for “every member of the standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, every deputy to the National People’s Congress, cast a sacred vote, abolish martial law and remove Premier Li Peng from office.”
The organizers and planners of the unrest also beat and organized violence with impunity. They gathered together local ruffians, fugitives from other places, and unreformed released prisoners. They recruited people who had deep hatred for the Communist Party and the socialist system. They assembled terrorist organizations such as the so-called “death squads”, “Flying Tigers” and “volunteers”. They threatened to house arrest and kidnap party and state leaders, and to seize power by “attacking the Bastille”. They distributed leaflets to incite the rebellion of the counter revolutionary armed forces, advocated that “a single spark can start a prairie fire”, called for the organization of “the armed forces that may be called the people’s army”, “unite all kinds of forces including the Taiwan Kuomintang” and “spare no effort to shed blood on the Communist Party and its government.”. They threatened that “it is necessary to settle accounts after autumn”, to account for the party and the government, and to prepare a list of cadres to be suppressed. Hong Kong’s Ming Pao also published a “dialogue” between Liu Xiaobo, one of the organizers and planners of the unrest, and a so-called “leader of the mainland people’s movement” on June 2, openly shouting that “if we expect Zhao Ziyang to return, we must organize armed forces among the people”.
The various activities of the instigators of the turmoil have abundant financial resources as a counter shield. In addition to the material support of several hundred thousand yuan provided by the four links company and other units, it also received financial and material support from overseas hostile forces and some organizations and individuals. Some people in the United States, Britain and Hong Kong have given millions of US dollars and tens of millions of Hong Kong dollars. Part of this money is used to sabotage martial law activities. Everyone who participates in setting up roadblocks and blocking military vehicles can get 30 yuan a day. At the same time, they also made a high price to bribe the mobs, burn military vehicles and fight the PLA, promising to burn a military vehicle for 3000 yuan, and to capture or kill a soldier for several thousand yuan. An important military and political official in Taiwan launched the “send love to Tiananmen” campaign, taking the lead in donating NT $100,000. A central committee of the Kuomintang raised NT $100 million to set up the so-called “fund to support the democratic movement in the mainland.”. Some people in Taiwan’s art and cultural circles have launched “blood ties to support the democratic movement in the mainland.”. Beijing’s “The Autonomous Federation of University Students” wrote a letter to “friends from Taiwan’s art and cultural circles”, saying that “at this critical moment, we have learned that Taiwan’s art and cultural circles have come forward” and “we express our sincere gratitude and respect for the material and spiritual support that we urgently need.”.
All this shows that the turmoil caused by a very small number of people is planned, organized and premeditated. It is absolutely impossible that as long as the government makes some concessions, it can be calmed down, or the issue of martial law can solve the problem. They are determined to unite with overseas and foreign hostile forces. Fight us to the end. All wishful good wishes will only make them attack us more freely. The longer the delay, the greater the cost.
7) How Did A Very Small Number Of People Start The Riots?
The PLA not only bears the sacred responsibility of “consolidating national defense, resisting aggression and defending the motherland”, but also bears the lofty obligation of “safeguarding the people’s peaceful labor, participating in the cause of national construction, and striving to serve the people”, which is clearly stipulated in Article 29 of the constitution. It is precisely the task given by the constitution that troops enter cities to maintain public order.
After the announcement of martial law in some parts of the capital on May 20, despite heavy obstacles, the troops still adopted different ways to enter the city and reach some of the alert areas in accordance with the plan.
A very small number of organizers and planners of the riot are well aware that if all the troops carrying out the martial law task are in place as planned, then their various illegal activities will not be carried out, and all their plots will soon end in failure. Therefore, they deliberately provoked trouble, and tried to intensify the turmoil, which eventually developed into a riot. On June 1, the public security organs of our country examined several leaders of the illegal organization “the Federation of self employed workers”. They took the opportunity to incite some people and surrounded and attacked the Beijing Municipal Working Committee, the municipal Party committee, the municipal government organs and the Ministry of public security.
On the evening of June 2, CCTV borrowed a jeep from the armed police force for 10 months. On the way back to the original unit, the speed was too fast and the road was slippery, causing a rollover accident and some ppl died, but none of them were students. This was originally a traffic accident, which was being dealt with by the relevant departments. However, few people intentionally connected it with the planned movement of the martial law forces into the city, creating rumors that it was the patrol car of the martial law forces –
which deliberately killed students, and encouraged people who did not know the truth to snatch the corpses and hold a funeral procession. For a while, people’s hearts were floating and the atmosphere was tense. After such agitation and agitation, rioters were set up by them.”
In the early morning of June 3, when martial law forces entered the warning areas as planned, some people organized to incite others to block large and small vehicles, set up roadblocks, intercept military vehicles, beat soldiers, and seize military supplies at many intersections.
Twelve military vehicles were stopped near Caoge County. Soldiers who passed by Yanjing Hotel were searched by rioters. The tires of military vehicles in front of the telegraph building were punctured and surrounded by isolation piers. Before and after dawn, the military vehicles at the bridge head of Shuiding Gate were overturned. The tire of Muxidi military vehicle was punctured. More than 400 soldiers in Chaoyang Gate were stoned by rioters. Military vehicles were intercepted and soldiers were besieged.
At about 7:00 a.m., at Liubukou, some rioters got into the besieged military vehicles and snatched machine guns loaded with bullets. From Jianguo Gate to Xidan, and near the overpass, the troops entering the city were isolated sporadically, besieged and beaten.
On Jianguo Gate overpass, some soldiers were stripped of their clothes, some soldiers were badly beaten. In the morning, the troops in the area of Huqiao Lane were rushed, and the soldiers were severely beaten, and some of them were blinded. Some of the wounded soldiers were intercepted on their way to the hospital, the tyres of the ambulance were deflated and the wounded were kidnapped. From Hufang road to Taoran Lane, 21 military vehicles were surrounded.
In the morning, the troops in the area of Huqiaofang were rushed, and the soldiers were severely beaten, and some of them were blinded. Some of the wounded soldiers were intercepted on their way to the hospital, the tyres of the ambulance were deflated and the wounded were kidnapped. From Hufang road to Taoran Road, 21 military vehicles were surrounded. When soldiers transferred ammunition, the police who went to guard were injured.
At noon, some PLA soldiers who were stopped at the south entrance of Fuyou street, the north entrance of Zhengyi Road, Xuanwu Gate, Hufang Bridge, Muxidi, Dongsi and other intersections were wounded, and some of them were robbed of their helmets, helmets, raincoats, water bottles and satchels. A group of people from Liubu Gate intercepted a military vehicle carrying guns and ammunition. The armed police force and public security officers failed to clear the siege for many times. If the guns and ammunition on the car were snatched or exploded, the consequences would be unimaginable. In order to protect the life and property safety of the people in the capital, the armed police force, as a last resort, fired tear gas to disperse the crowd and snatched back the ammunition truck.
While intercepting, smashing and robbing military vehicles, a group of thugs surrounded and attacked state organs and important departments. They rushed into the Great Hall of the People, the Propaganda Department of the Central Committee, the Radio and Television Department, and the West and South gates of Zhongnanhai. Dozens of armed police soldiers and public security officers defending these organs were injured.
With the rapid deterioration of the situation, the provocation of the riot was more rampant. At about 5:00 p.m., the leaders of the illegal organizations “The Autonomous Federation of University Students” and “The Autonomous Federation of Workers” distributed kitchen knives, daggers, iron bars, iron chains and pointed bamboo poles in Tiananmen Square, claiming that “if you catch the military police, you will fight to the death.”. “The Federation of Industry and Trade Unions” in the radio wantonly clamored to “take up arms to overthrow the government.”. Another group of thugs gathered thousands of people and pushed them to the wall of a construction site near Xidan, snatching away a large number of construction tools, steel bars, bricks and so on, ready to fight street battles. Their radio stations constantly broadcast “knowledge” on how to make and use burning bottles and how to block and burn military vehicles, instigating them. They planned to use the next day, which is Sunday, to incite more people to go to the streets and launch a larger scale of beating, smashing, robbing and burning, thus creating a mass riot situation, overthrowing the government and seizing power.
It was at this extremely urgent juncture that the CPC Central Committee, the State Council and the Central Military Commission had to make up their minds and order the martial law forces stationed around the capital to advance by force to quell the counter revolutionary riot.
8) How Did The Counter-Revolutionary Mobs Harm The PLA
Since the beginning of martial law, the martial law troops who have successively entered the city have always maintained a high degree of restraint and tried to avoid conflicts according to the instructions of the Central Committee. After the riot on June 3, before the troops entered the city, in order to avoid hurting the masses, the Beijing Municipal People’s government and the command headquarters of the martial law forces issued an “emergency notice” at 6:30 p.m., demanding that “all citizens should be vigilant. From now on, please do not go to the streets or Tiananmen Square. The majority of employees should stick to their posts, and citizens should stay at home to ensure your life safety. ” This “notice” was broadcast repeatedly by radio, television and various broadcasters.
Around 10:00 p.m. on June 3, the martial law troops ordered to enter the city successively entered the urban area. But at all major intersections, they were seriously blocked. Even in these circumstances, the force has been extremely restrained. The counter revolutionary mobs, with their deep hatred for the PLA, used this restraint to launch appalling attacks, smashes, looting, burning and killing.
From 22:00 to 23:00, 12 military vehicles were burned from Cuiwei Road, Gongzhu Cemetery, Muxidi to Xidan. Some people brought bricks in trucks and smashed them at the soldiers. Some mobs pushed the trolleybus to the intersection, set fire to it and blocked the road. Some fire engines rushed to put out the fire and were smashed and burned.
Around 23 o’clock, three military vehicles were smashed and one jeep was overturned. The military vehicles of Anding Gate overpass were surrounded. A regiment of soldiers on Chongwenmen street was surrounded. Thirty military vehicles were cordoned off at Jianguomen overpass. More than 300 military vehicles were cordoned off to the west of Beijing Coal Industry School. In order to ensure the advance of the military vehicles, some soldiers and commanders got off to do the dredging work, were besieged and beaten, some were forcibly kidnapped and disappeared. Those who were wounded included Lieutenant officers, school officers and generals. In order to avoid conflict, the military vehicles blocked at the Sanying gate of Nanyuan made a detour to the East. When they reached the South Gate of the temple of heaven, many military vehicles were smashed and burned. After a military vehicle was blocked at the entrance of Zhushikou, a group of people climbed onto the vehicle. A cadre like man advised them to get down. They were beaten up immediately and their life and death were unknown.
After the early hours of June 4, the violence of burning military vehicles intensified. In Tiantan East Road, Tiantan north gate, Qianmen subway west entrance, Qianmen East Road, Fuyou street, Liukou Road, Xidan, Fuxing Gate, Nanlishi Road, Muxidi, Lianhuachi, Chegongzhuang, Donghua Gate, Dongzhimen, and Dabeiyao, Hujialou, Beidougezhuang, Jiugong township of Daxing County in Chaoyang District, hundreds of military vehicles were used by thugs with gasoline, burning bottles and soil. Some soldiers were burned alive in the car, some jumped out of the car and roared to death. In some places, several, a dozen or even 20 or 30 military vehicles were burned at the same time, causing a sea of fire. At the intersection of Shuangjing, more than 70 armored vehicles were surrounded, and more than 20 of them had their machine guns removed by thugs. From the intersection of Jingyuan to the west of Laoshan Ashes Hall, 30 military vehicles were set ablaze by thugs, and the scene was filled with smoke. Some thugs hold iron bars and push gasoline barrels. They stopped at the intersection and burnt cars when they saw them. Several army grain trucks and clothing vehicles were robbed by rioters and disappeared. There were several rioters in the Fuxing Gate overpass area, driving the armored vehicles, while moving and shooting. The illegal organization, the Federation of Trade Unions, also claimed on the radio that they had seized a military radio station and a codebook.
While smashing and burning military vehicles, some rioters launched attacks on civilian facilities and public buildings. The windows of Yanshan and other shops in Xicheng District were smashed. The pine wall in front of Tiananmen Gate and west of Chairman Mao Memorial Hall was ignited. Some public electric vehicles, fire engines, ambulances and taxis were smashed and burned. What is particularly vicious is that a group of people drove a bus full of gasoline to Tiananmen Gate Tower, attempted to set fire to the tower, and were intercepted by the martial law forces in the south of Jinshui bridge.
What is particularly intolerable is that the thugs not only attacked military vehicles wildly and engaged in smashing, smashing, looting and burning, but also carried out inhuman massacres on PLA soldiers by extremely brutal and barbaric means.
In the early morning of June 4, a group of thugs at Dongdan road crossing smashed soldiers with wine bottles, bricks and bicycles. Many soldiers were covered with blood. In Fuxing gate, a military vehicle was intercepted, and 12 people, including the management section chief, administrator, and cooks of a certain department, were pulled out of the car, forced to search their bodies, and then beat hard, many people were seriously injured. Four soldiers in Liubukou were besieged and beaten, and some died on the spot. Three soldiers near Guangqumen were beaten hard, only one was rescued by the masses and two missing. In the West Xingsheng alley of Xicheng District, more than 20 armed police soldiers were severely beaten by gangsters. Some were seriously injured, and some were missing. A military vehicle in Huguo temple was intercepted. The soldiers were taken as hostages after being pulled down. A number of submachine guns were robbed. A car full of bricks drove from Dongjiaomin lane to Tian’anmen Square. The people on the car yelled: “if you are Chinese, come up and smash the PLA.”
After dawn, the atrocity of maiming PLA soldiers reached a heinous level. When an ambulance of a detachment of the armed police pulled eight wounded soldiers to a nearby hospital, it was stopped by a group of thugs, and one was killed on the spot, and the other seven were all killed. In front of a bicycle shop on Qianmen Street, three PLA men were seriously injured. The mobs surrounded them and screamed, “Whoever dares to save them will be killed.” In Chang’an Street, a military vehicle stalled, and 1200 thugs rushed in and smashed the driver’s cab to death. About 30 meters east of Xidan crossroads, a soldier was killed and burned by pouring gasoline on his body. In Fucheng gate, a soldier was killed and his body was hung on the railing of the overpass. In Chongwen gate, a soldier was thrown from the overpass by a group of thugs, poured gasoline on it, and burned to death alive. The rioters screamed, this is “lighting the sky lamp.”. Near the Capital Cinema on West Chang’an Street, a PLA officer was killed by a mob, and his body was hung on a burning bus after being cut open to dig his eyes.
During the riots of several days, more than 1280 military vehicles, police vehicles and public electric vehicles were smashed, burned and damaged, including more than 1000 military vehicles, more than 60 armored vehicles, more than 30 police vehicles, more than 120 public electric vehicles and more than 70 other motor vehicles. A batch of weapons and ammunition were robbed. More than 6000 soldiers of the martial law forces, armed police and public security officers were injured and dozens died. They have paid blood and even precious lives to defend the motherland, the Constitution and the people. Their achievements will always be remembered by the people.
Such a heavy price is the most powerful illustration of the great tolerance and restraint adopted by the martial law forces. The people’s Liberation Army is an army that serves the people wholeheartedly under the leadership of the Communist Party of China. This army is cruel to the enemy but kind to the people. During the war, they were able to defeat the 8 million troops of the Kuomintang armed by the US imperialism which armed to the teeth. They were able to effectively defend our country’s sacred territory, territorial waters, and airspace. Why did they cause so many casualties in calming down the counter-revolutionary riots? Why were they beaten or even killed when they had weapons in their hands? As Comrade Deng Xiaoping pointed out, “it is because good people and bad people are mixed together, which makes it difficult for us to take some drastic measures that we should take.”. This also shows that the PLA loves the people and is not willing to hurt the masses. They bear the humiliation and die calmly, which is the full embodiment of the essence of the people’s army. Otherwise, how could such a large number of casualties and losses be caused? Does this not mean that our army is willing to sacrifice itself in order to protect the people? In the end, in order to quell the counter-revolutionary riot and avoid causing more losses, the martial law forces, after repeated warnings, were forced to fire guns into the air and fight back, killing some rampant thugs. Because there were many onlookers, some were hit by cars and crowded by people, some were injured by stray bullets, and some were shot and killed by armed criminals. According to current information, more than 3000 non-military personnel were injured and more than 200 people were killed, including 36 college students. Among them, there were thugs who were guilty and deserve, the masses who were injured by accident, and the medical staff, joint defense personnel, and order maintenance workers who were on duty at the scene. For the people who were injured by accident and those who were injured in the course of carrying out their tasks, the government should conscientiously do a good job in dealing with the aftermath.
Due to the rumors made by the Voice of America and some people deliberately spread rumors, it was once widely said that after the martial law forces entered the city, “Tiananmen Square was washed with blood” and “thousands or even tens of thousands of people fell into the pool of blood”. The real situation is that after the martial law forces entered the square, at 1:30 a.m., the Beijing Municipal People’s government and the command headquarters of the martial law forces issued an emergency notice: “there is a serious counter-revolutionary riot in the capital tonight”, “all citizens and students in Tiananmen Square should leave immediately to ensure that the martial law forces can carry out their tasks.”. The emergency announcement was repeated with a high-pitched loudspeaker for more than three hours. This is, the young students who stayed in the square to sit still were concentrated in the area of the monument to the People’s Heroes at the southern end of the square. At about 3:00, after internal consultations, they sent representatives to the martial law forces to express their willingness to leave the square automatically, and the martial law forces immediately agreed. At 4:30 a.m., a notice from the command headquarters of the martial law forces was broadcast on the square: “we will now start clearing the field and agree with the appeal of the students to leave the square.” At the same time, the announcement of the Beijing Municipal People’s government and the command of the martial law forces on the rapid restoration of normal order in Tiananmen Square was broadcast. After hearing the announcement, thousands of young students stopped in the square, carrying their own flags and banners, arranged pickets hand in hand on both sides, and left the square at about 5:00. In order to ensure the safe evacuation of the students, the martial law forces opened a wide passage at the south entrance of the east side of the square to ensure the students leave smoothly and safely. At this time, there were some students who insisted on going. The martial law forces forced them to leave the square according to the requirements of the “Circular”. By 5:30, all the clearing tasks were completed. None of the students sitting in the square, including the last forced to leave, died. There is a rumor that the square was filled with “a river of blood” and that he was “climbing out of the dead”, which is totally nonsense.
Marked by the return of Tiananmen Square to the people’s hands and the arrival of the martial law forces, the counter-revolutionary riots in the capital were smashed at one stroke. In the process of calming down the counter-revolutionary riot, the PLA, the armed police force, and the public security cadres and policemen were not afraid of sacrifice, but fought bravely and established immortal meritorious deeds. The masses of the people rescue the wounded, rescue the besieged soldiers, and actively cooperate with and support the martial law forces. Many touching good people and good deeds have emerged. As a result of the turmoil and counter-revolutionary riots, Beijing’s economy has suffered huge losses, and other losses are more difficult to calculate with money. The broad masses of workers, peasants, and intellectuals are working hard to recover their losses. At present, all orders in the capital have basically returned to normal, and the situation in the whole country has been stabilized rapidly, which reflects that the correct decision-making of the Central Committee has been supported by the people of all ethnic groups in the country. However, the turmoil and riots have not yet completely subsided, and a very small number of counter-revolutionary rebels are not willing to die down and are still carrying out various destructive activities and even dream of a comeback.
In order to achieve a complete victory in stopping the unrest and quelling the counter-revolutionary insurgency, we should mobilize the masses, strengthen the people’s democratic dictatorship, and carry out the work of checking counter-revolutionary insurrectionists to the end. It is necessary to thoroughly expose the conspiracy of turmoil and rebellion, punish the organizers and planners of the turmoil and counter-revolutionary rebellion according to law, that is, those who persistently adhere to the position of bourgeois liberalization and engage in a political conspiracy, those who collude with overseas and foreign hostile forces, those who provide the party and state core secrets to illegal organizations, and the punishment for committing such atrocities as beating, smashing, robbing, burning and killing A criminal. We should strictly distinguish and correctly handle two types of contradictions of different natures. Through resolute, painstaking, and meticulous work, we should concentrate on cracking down on a very small number of chief criminals and diehards who refuse to repent, so as to expand the scope of education and unity. On this basis, relying on the masses, we should strive to increase production, practice a strict economy and work hard to recover all losses caused by the turmoil and counter-revolutionary riots as soon as possible.